Opium Substance Abuse-Opiate Addiction
Opium is an illicit drug, and is highly addictive non-synthetic narcotic. It derived from the opium poppy seed pod (Papaver somniferum). . The milky fluid that seeps from its incisions in the unripe seed pod of this poppy has been scraped by hand and air-dried to produce what is known as opium. The opium substance has a black or brown color, resembling tar like substance. The opium is normally smoked, in order to get high. When smoked, the opiate chemicals rapidly pass in to the lungs, where they are absorbed quickly in the blood stream, and then distributed to all vital organs. If opium is ingested by mouth, the drug will take longer to produce its effects.
It will have to pass through the stomach and small intestines, and in to the liver before passing to brain. Opium effects are similar to those of heroin. The user of opium may experience, euphoria, that followed by relaxation. In addition, the opium has “calming ” effects to suppress anxiety, and relieve moderate to severe pain. Opium acts by adhering to the brain receptors, that associated with reward system, that enhances pleasures and reduces the perception of pain. As a side effect, opium impairs muscle in the bowel movement, leading to constipation; it can cause dry mouth and nose. Opium is classified as a CNS depressant, that contains phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, codeine. According to NIDA, opium is considered a Schedule II narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act. Most opioids are Schedule II, III, IV, or V drugs.
Some drugs that are derived from opium, such as heroin, are Schedule I drugs. Drugs that cause similar effects are: morphine, codeine, heroine, methadone, hydroquinone, fentanyl, and oxycodone. If opium is abused, it may cause euphoria (extreme happiness), relaxation, and sedation. It may cause slow breathing, that can lead to respiratory depression. If used in higher dosages, it may even cause death. In addition, opium abusers may experience nausea, confusion, and constipation. If combined with other substances, like alcohol or other opiates, it may cause irreparable damages to the central nervous system, and it may result in a sudden death. Chronic abuse of Opium may result in developing of a high tolerance to this drug. An addict will have to increase the dosage of opium in order to get the same pleasurable effects. Continues use of opium may lead to physical and psychological dependence and addiction. A physical dependence manifests when the user starts to experience withdrawal symptoms, after either reducing the amount of drugs taken, or stopping it abruptly. Opium Withdrawal Symptoms. If the addict decides to reduce the dosage of opium he uses, or makes the decision to stop taking the drug, and quits abruptly, it may result in severe withdrawal symptoms, that commonly resemble flu like symptoms. The withdrawal symptoms include: v Watery eyes v Runny nose v Sneezing and yawning v Muscle and joint pain v Impaired movement v Anxiety v Agitation v Nausea v Diarrhea v Sleep disorder v Cold sweats Overdoes is inevitable if Opium is taken in high dosages. Opium overdose can result in respiratory depression, seizures, dizziness, weakness, loss of consciousness, coma and sudden death.