Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4 T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4 T cells through three main mechanisms: First, direct viral killing of infected cells; second, increased rates of apoptosis in infected cells; and third, killing of infected CD4 T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4 T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.
HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus, part of the family of Retroviridae. Lentiviruses have many morphologies and…
Cocaine, is a potent addictive stimulant drug. It comes in the form of powder , that can be ingested by snorting or injected as water dissolved substance. The street name for cocaine is “crack”, this form of cocaine comes in a rock crystal form, which is heated, and then smoked. The reason for this name is that, while cocaine rock is being heated it produces crackling sound. They ways cocaine is abused. There are several common ways of ingesting cocaine: via snorting, smoking, or by intravenously.
Heroin is a highly addictive drug that is processed from morphine, which comes from the seed of a poppy plant. It is a sedative that obstructs the central nervous system. Heroin can be ingested intravenously , smoked or snorted. Heroin is a highly addictive drug, and abusing this drug had become a critical problem in the United States. According to NIDA research and statistics, there is a high increase in the amount of people who are snorting and smoking heroin, in comparison with those who use it intravenously. The reason for this change is an erroneous conception that snorting and smoking heroin will not result in addiction. Furthermore these forms of ingesting a drug apparently augment the purity of heroin. Cognitive Functioning Chronic use or abuse of heroin can lead to a permanent and destructive impairments on mental capacity. The negative effects on brain malfunctioning may result in memory loss, segmented, and judgment abilities.